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The Progress of Education Reform PDF - This issue of The Progress of Education Reform describes "pay-for-performance" (PFP) models and presents recent research findings and their implications for policy. It looks at PFP systems broadly and includes not only systems that provide rewards for increased student achievement, but also for other tasks such as engaging in professional development and taking on added roles and responsibilities. (Barbara Thompson and Paul Baumann, ECS, October 2011)...

The Progress of Education Reform: Teacher Merit Pay PDF - The idea of merit pay programs for educators has been around for several decades and it is starting to be implemented in a growing number of districts around the country. But we have to ask: What do we really know about the impact of merit pay on students? This issue of The Progress for Education Reform looks at what impact some of these merit programs have had on student learning. (Michael Griffith, Education Commission of the States, June 2010)...

Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Early Impacts of Pay-for-Performance After One Year - The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. Educators' reporting of the program indicated that most misunderstood the performance measures and the amount of pay-for-performance for which they were eligible. Most were satisfied with their professional opportunities, school environment and the TIF program. They tended to be less satisfied than those educators in schools without a TIF program, but they appreciated the TIF opportunity and acknowledged increase pressure to perform.(Jeffrey Max, et al., National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, September 2014)...

Projected Statewide Impact of "Opportunity Culture" School Models - Using North Carolina as an example, statewide use of Opportunity Culture models could give students an average 3.4 more years of learning, teachers leading teams could make $848,000 more in a 35-year career, state income tax revenue would be up to $700 million higher over 16 years of implementation and state domestic product would increase by $4.6 billion to $7.7 billion over 16 years, according to this estimate. Opportunity Culture models extend the reach of excellent teachers for more pay within budget. (Christen Holly, et al., Public Impact, May 2014) ...

An Opportunity Culture for All: Making Teaching a Highly Paid, High-Impact Profession - The bad news: Between 1970 and 2010, per pupil spending went up almost 150%, but only 11 percent went to teachers. Teacher salaries and student outcomes stagnated. There's a better way, the authors argue. Junk the one-teacher-one-classroom model. Create teaching teams led by one excellent teacher so more kids get exposed. Use digital instruction and paraprofessionals to save money and spend that money on better teacher pay. Be more selective about which teachers enter, which teachers stay. (Emily Ayscue Hassel and Bryan C. Hassel, Public Impact, September 2013)...

Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey, First Look - In the 2011-12 school year, there were about 3,850,100 teachers in elementary and secondary schools, 3,385,200 in public schools and 464,900 in private schools, according to this First Look. The average age of teachers in traditional public schools was 43, teachers in public charters averaged 37, and the average age of private school teachers was 44. All schools had a larger percentage of female teachers (76%) than male (24%). On average, regular full-time teachers spent 51 hours per week on school-related activities, including 31 hours on instruction.(Rebecca Goldring, Lucinda Gray and Amy Bitterman, National Center for Education Statistics Statistics, August 2013)...

The Recession's Impact on Teacher Salaries - Executive Summary - To a great extent, teacher layoffs were avoided during the recession, but they were hurt in the area of salary growth. From 2008-09 through 2011-12, raises in the nation's largest school districts were one-third to one-half what they were at the start of the recession. In same time period, teachers had a total pay freeze in 80% of the districts studied, or a pay cut in at least one of the school years. (National Council on Teacher Quality, May 2013)...

Creating Sustainable Teacher Career Pathways: A 21st Century Imperative - Recent initiatives that promote teacher role differentiation and create different models of teacher staffing at the local, state and national level are highlighted. Recommendations follow on how to create conditions that will make teaching a more attractive option for a generation that wants workplace flexibility, collaboration, differentiated roles and compensation systems that recognize performance and differing responsibility levels. (Catherine Fisk Natale, et al., Pearson and National Network of State Teachers of the Year, May 2013) ...

Does Performance-Based Pay Improve Teaching? - PISA in Focus 16' discusses the relationship between performance-based pay in the teaching profession and student performance in the students studied in the Programme for International Student Assessment. (OECD, May 2012)...

Public-Employee Retirement Systems State- and Locally-Administered Pensions Summary Report: 2010 - This report is part of a continuing series designed to provide information on the structure, function, employment, and finances of the United Statesí nearly 90,000 state and local governments. This publication presents data on state- and locally-administered public pension systems based on information collected from the 2010 Annual Survey of Public-Employee Retirement Systems. The data collected from these systems are for defined benefit plans only and do not include data for defined contribution plans or other postemployment benefit plans. (United States Census Bureau, April 2012)...

Five Things Education Supporters Should Know About Pension Reform - This brief guide shows you how and why pension programs affect your state's efforts to attract and retain the best teachers. It outlines five key areas you should consider as you evaluate proposed changes and ends with questions you need to ask about your state's pension system. (Education Sector, 2012)...

Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers - Do teachers currently receive the proper level of compensation? The authors point out that comparing teachers to non-teachers presents special challenges not accounted for in the existing literature. (Jason Richwine and Andrew Biggs, The Heritage Center for Data Analysis, November 2011)...

Seizing Opportunity at the Top: How the U.S. Can Reach Every Student with an Excellent Teacher - The authors conclude that if our nation consistently provides students with excellent teachers, we could close most of our stubborn achievement gaps in just five years. By putting excellent teachers in charge of every childís learning, consistently, the U.S. can achieve the goals of closing opportunity gaps and helping every student reach their potential. (Emily Ayscue Hassel and Bryan Hassel, Public Impact, 2011)...

A Big Apple for Educators: New York City's Experiment with Schoolwide Performance Bonuses: Final Evaluation Report - In 2007-08 New York City Department of Education and the United Federation of Teachers implemented the Performance Bonus Program in a random sample of the city's high-needs public schools to determine if student performance could be improved through school-based financial incentives. After a three year pilot, the RAND Corporation conducted a study to determine the programís effects. Researchers found that the program did not, by itself, improve student achievement. (RAND Corporation, July 2011)...

WWC Quick Review: Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching - This study measured the effects of offering financial incentives to teachers in each year of the project by comparing the end-of-year math achievement of students whose teachers were offered financial incentives with that of students whose teachers were not offered the incentives. (Institute of Education Sciences, April 2011)...

Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching - The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study conducted in the Metro-Nashville Public Schools from 2006-07 through 2008-09. Middle school mathematics teachers voluntarily participated in a controlled experiment to assess the effect of offering financial rewards to teachers whose students showed unusual gains on standardized tests. This report contains a description of the project and a summary of the principal effects of the incentives on student achievement. (National Center on Performance Incentives, Vanderbilt University, September 2010)...

Performance Pay for Teachers - In contrast to "merit pay" programs of the past, new programs seek to take a more holistic approach, combining revised professional development standards and offerings, a more constructive teacher evaluation process, and a mixture of school-wide and individual teacher incentives to create change. This annotated bibliography presents some of the new programs. (Arden Rice, Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, April 2010)...

Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education - A host of factors have resulted in teacher evaluation systems that are superficial and that often fail to even directly address the quality of instruction, much less measure studentsí learning, according to this report. The authors of this report explore the causes and consequences of the crisis in teacher evaluation and examine a number of effective approaches that could be employed. (Thomas Toch and Robert Rothman, Education Sector, January 2008)...

Creating a Successful Performance Compensation System for Educators - Many schools and communities are exploring ways to attract, develop, motivate and retain excellent teachers by providing increased compensation through performance-based pay. This document serves to inform decisionmakers of the essential factors to consider when designing and implementing a performance-based compensation system. (Working Group on Teaching Quality, July 2007) ...

Creating a Successful Performance Compensation System for Educators - This document reflects the findings of the Working Group on Teacher Quality, whose participants share information and build consensus among organizations and experts active on the issue of performance pay and teacher compensation reform. (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, 2007)...

Teacher Compensation in Charter and Private Schools - Teacher salary schedules are often cited as a contributor in the struggle to find and keep quality teachers, especially in hard-to-staff areas. By looking at charter and private schools that do not or rarely use salary schedules, this study makes a case for flexible salary structure and performance pay as a way to attract and retain highly qualified teachers in public schools. (Julie Kowal, Emily Ascue Hassal, and Brian Hassal, Center for American Progress, February 2007)...

Frozen Assets: Rethinking Teacher Contracts Could Free Billions for School Reform - This report investigates eight common provisions found in teacher contracts that are costly and do not affect student performance. The results of this study suggest that reallocation of monies spent in these provisions may allow the education dollar to stretch further to work on improving student achievement. (Marguerite Roza, Education Sector, January 2007) ...


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